individualized style of realistic sculpture. Ramkinkar Baij in the thirties, Prodosh Dasgupta, Dhanraj Bhagat, Sankho Chaudhuri, Amarnath Sehgal and Chintamani Kar in the forties and fifties became promoters of new experiments from the subsequent progressive attitude. Ramkinkar represented intensely and intimately male and female subjects, with an artistic quality and an expressive power to be defined almost archaic. A part of village paintings is now getting a world exposure.
- The use of local materials and techniques brought the work of this artist closer to nature and the environment. The directly shaped surfaces are warm, vibrant, tactile and communicative of the different realities of life; its elongated, distorted or dramatized forms make his work expressive. The subjects are visually dynamic but structurally stable, tending to be baroque, romantic and classic in the same way. His sculpture is unique in the pioneering modern scene of Indian sculpture.
Ramkinkar Baij Ramkinkar Baij (1906-80) was the first sculptor to break with the academic ideal and develop an individual style with a contemporary push and, for these reasons, he is considered a pioneer. He, in fact, free from often forcibly occlusive categories such as colonialism, nationalism, westernism, Indianism, academicism and modernism, began to dissect modern art from within. He was fully aware of what is modern and what is traditional; what is western and what is Indian. In his works, in fact, we can notice dynamic interactions of emotion and intellect, a dialogue between subjective forms and images, between tools that work different materials and the technical ability of the artist. His approach was above all intuitive, not analytical.
- With the experiments and explorations of this artist, modern Indian sculpture began to show greater diversity in form, in concept, covering the wider area of human experience. What in the West was built in about a century of modern art until 1960, from Impressionism to the new trends in expressionism, constructivism, etc., in India was seen and known in thirty years of an artist’s sculptural creation. Ramkinkar Baij, between 1930 and 1960, responded to the various strands of modern art, faced their questions and meanings and drew inspiration from them.
Post Independence The post-independence period was characterized by a slow but steady growth of the industry. Machines and tools began to play an important role in industrial society and also in the personality of individuals. The scientific process and the industrial discipline gained ground slowly, while the emotional and sentimental aspects of the individuals remained outside this logic. In the creative field, the exploration of industrial means rationalizes the work and thought processes of artists and sculptors. As a result they saw in the Indian art scene a slow shift of the constituent elements from emotional to rational aspects within a new development of the idea and image.